Zel's Fleet Blog - Xantia Activa, Jag XJ-S, Sinclair C5, Mercedes 208D, AC Model 70.

Tell us your ongoing tales and experiences with your French car here. Post pictures of your car here as well.

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CitroJim
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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by CitroJim »

myglaren wrote:
Zelandeth wrote:Just thinking now, a screaming little three pot two stroke would have been epic in the Ka, given how it handles that would have suited it perfectly!


Worked well in the original SAABS!


Good points well made on both counts! Two stroke triples are lovely engines.. I love them in bikes of the motorised variety, especially my old Suzuki GT550 :)

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by Hell Razor5543 »

The only problem the Swedes had with those engines was when they went down twisty hills. As the two stroke engine has the oil in the fuel you had to keep your foot on the throttle in order for it to remain lubricated, and your foot on the brake to make sure you did not go down too fast. When (if!) you DID get to the bottom the brakes were a tad warm and might not work properly.

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by CitroJim »

Hell Razor5543 wrote:The only problem the Swedes had with those engines was when they went down twisty hills. As the two stroke engine has the oil in the fuel you had to keep your foot on the throttle in order for it to remain lubricated, and your foot on the brake to make sure you did not go down too fast. When (if!) you DID get to the bottom the brakes were a tad warm and might not work properly.


That's true James! We had the same issue when racing 100cc karts, a period of closed throttle at the end of a really quick run along the back straight at full-pelt could lead to a seizure due to lack of lube...

Our work-around was to clamp a gloved hand over the carb air intake to richen up the mixture at the end of the straight and thus draw in a big gulp of oil to see the engine through its lean period...

You knew it worked by the cloud of sweet R40-smelling smoke as you accelerated out of the corner at the end of the straight :D

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by RichardW »

Info on the Ford 2-stroke:

FORD'S ADVANCED TWO-STROKE ENGINE STARTS CUSTOMER TRIALS;
FIESTA TEST FLEET TAKES TO THE ROAD
ESSEX, England, June 24 /PRNewswire/ -- A pilot run of 25 two-stroke engined Fiestas has been built at Ford's Dagenham plant in the UK. They will be used by key component suppliers and selected fleet operators. A further run of 35 prototype cars will be produced during 1992.
All 60 test vehicles are being built to gain early service experience of this advanced engine concept as part of the run-up to low- volume production of two-stroke cars, planned by Ford for the second half of the decade. About half the test cars have been built with left- hand drive for operation in Germany while the other half have right-hand drive for use in the UK.
Two-stroke advantages
The new Ford two-stroke engine has been developed over the past four years in cooperation with the Orbital Engine Company of Western Australia.
Its use of the two-stroke combustion cycle allows the valvetrain to be eliminated and provides double the number of power strokes. This makes the engine more compact, reduces engine weight, increases simplicity and power density and significantly enhances performance feel.
Advanced combustion system
The advanced combustion system uses stratified charge concepts to bring many of the operating advantages previously associated only with diesel engines to gasoline power units. With a specific power/weight ratio about 40 percent higher than today's gasoline engines and a much reduced engine package volume, the engine offers the potential for future vehicles to be designed with greater operating efficiencies than are possible with today's conventional four-stroke powertrains. It also provides smoother running characteristics.
A further advantage that cuts directly against the current two- stroke image is that the new Ford engine also has very low exhaust emissions. As a result of a technological breakthrough that overcomes the traditional disadvantages of two-stroke units, the new Ford engine has already proved it can meet the latest U.S. Clean Air Act emission standards.
The engine development program has employed simultaneous engineering techniques, involving a team of Ford planning, manufacturing, research and development engineers working very closely with Orbital and specialist outside component suppliers, many of which are also participating in the preliminary fleet trials.
The Ford Two-Stroke in Detail
Ford in Europe has been working closely with the Orbital Engine Company on the development of two-stroke engines since signing a licensing agreement with the Australian-based company in the middle of 1988. The engine design is aimed primarily at improving vehicle efficiency, increasing running refinement and lowering exhaust emissions.
The Ford two-stroke is an in-line three-cylinder engine with a displacement of 1,200 cc. It develops 80PS (60kw) at 5,500 rpm (about 10 percent more than an equivalent four-stroke design) with a peak torque of 125 Nm at 4,000 rpm (about 14 percent more than the torque of a 1.2-liter four-stroke). The fuel economy improvement over an equivalent four-stroke engine is between 10 percent and 12 percent.
Significantly, the engine is about 25 percent lower in height than an overhead cam four-stroke and 25 percent shorter than a four-cylinder in axial length. It also weighs about 30 kg (30 percent) less than a typical small car engine. Power density (output per unit mass) is therefore 40 percent higher.
Construction of the engine is based around a light-alloy water- cooled crankcase and cylinder head. The ported two-stroke cycle eliminates the need for a camshaft and poppet valves. By injecting oil into the intake air before it reaches the crankcase the need for an oil pan and renewable oil filter are also eliminated.
Forged steel crank with split roller bearings
Each of the three cylinders has its own self-contained crankcase chamber, separated by cast walls supporting the main bearings between the crankshaft throws and made gas-tight by special low-friction main- bearing seals. The crankshaft is a one-piece case-hardened steel forging fitted with special split roller bearings for all main and big- end journals.
Induction air is drawn into the crankcase by the vacuum created below the piston as it rises in the cylinder on the compression stroke. A set of reed valves, one per cylinder, prevents any backflow during the subsequent crankcase compression cycle as the piston moves down.
Sophisticated oil supply
Oil is supplied by an electrically operated metering pump and injected immediately upstream of the reed valve assembly. The rate of oil injection is varied by the electronic engine management system according to the load and speed of the engine.
In general the fuel/oil mixture ratio varies between about 90 and 420 to 1, reducing the oil concentration under most operating conditions to less than a tenth of that used in conventional two-stroke engines today. This level of highly sophisticated oil injection control has been developed to provide a safe margin of oil mist lubrication for the roller bearings and at the same time significantly reduce exhaust emissions.
The small quantities of oil that enter the cylinder with the induction air are burnt off in the chamber and their combustion products then oxidized by the catalytic converter, which operates without the risk of oil contamination. This eliminates the characteristic blue smoke normally associated with two-stroke engines. About 30 percent of the injected oil is recovered from the crankcase floor and recirculated, giving a projected range of around 20,000 km before the supply tank needs attention.
Extended Service Intervals
As only the spark plugs and air filter need replacement throughout the life of the vehicle, Ford expects that future two-stroke engines will thus be able to extend routine service intervals, reducing cost of ownership levels further than is possible with today's wet-sump four- stroke powertrains.
After the induction air has been drawn into the crankcase by the upwards movement of the piston and the piston moves down on the power stroke, it uncovers a number of transfer ports arranged around the cylinder walls, each connected to the crankcase volume below. This allows the primary induction air from the crankcase to flow into the upper cylinder with the period and timing controlled by the position, shape and size of each port's opening as the edge of the piston crown uncovers the opening and later seals it off.
Loop Scavenging
The incoming flow of air into the upper cylinder has been developed to provide a loop scavenging characteristic which rapidly purges the previous charge from the cylinder in the shortest possible time.
The gas dynamics of this loop scavenging have been finely optimized by the design of the port profiles and the phasing of their events. In four-stroke engines, this process usually requires multiple valves with their added cost and complexity.
Advanced Air-assisted Direct Injection
The fuel mixture is injected directly into the combustion chamber after being prepared by a unique low-pressure compressed-air assisted system.
A reciprocating air pump, mounted in front of a direct-coupled water pump for the coolant, is belt-driven from the crankshaft. It delivers air at around 5-6 bar to a special solenoid-operated injector assembly mounted in the center of each combustion chamber located directly next to the angled spark plug boss.
Fuel is supplied by a higher pressure version of a conventional fuel injection pump. It delivers fuel to the same housing at a slightly higher pressure than the air supply, metering through a separate, independently controlled solenoid-operated side-mounted injector.
The atomized mixture is then injected into the cylinder with a carefully optimized spray pattern that can be controlled by varying both the pulse width (duration) and timing of a specially developed nozzle valve head.
Stratified charge with lean-burn potential
This dual control of the fuel-air mixture, which is independent from the induction air supply, allows the combustion process to take place using a variable stratified charge for much of the operating range.
Instead of burning a uniform mixture, as in a conventional engine, stratified charge engines use a mixture that varies in strength across the chamber. In the Ford two-stroke the fuel-air preparation system promotes a kernel of ignitable gases around the spark plug so that the overall mixture can be leaner.
Load and speed variations are met by a sophisticated combination of fueling and air flow changes. The system reacts much more quickly to transient driver demands giving the engine a very fast response and an excellent performance feel.
Ford's previous research into the Proco stratified charge engine in the USA and fast, lean-burn combustion technology in Europe is now being applied to the development of the advanced gas dynamics of the two- stroke combustion system.
Exhaust Port Shutters
Spent gases leave the cylinder through a single exhaust port in the cylinder wall. The scavenging process is controlled by a movable exhaust port shutter for each cylinder. The shutters are controlled by the engine management system to provide variable exhaust port timing.
The three-cylinder in-line configuration allows all three shutters to be operated by a single rotary actuator, with the system joining from three outlets into one in the exhaust manifold casting.
Simple Oxidation Catalyst
Because of the large proportion of excess air present during light load and mid-range operation, and the inherently lower combustion temperatures produced by the two-stroke engine, only a simple, cost- effective oxidation catalyst system is necessary in the exhaust. No oxygen sensing nor closed loop control, as with a three-way catalyst system, are required.
A close-coupled light-off catalyst is supported by a larger catalyst further down the exhaust system that has been specially designed and optimized to provide the low back pressure two-stroke engines require.
Smoother Firing Pulses
With twice as many firing pulses as a four-stroke, the Ford three- cylinder two-stroke offers running refinement very close to that of an in-line six.
The balancing strategy used in its crankshaft construction confines vibration to the horizontal rather than the vertical plane. This has allowed special dual-compliance engine mounts to be developed that are vertically stiff to support the engine load and horizontally soft to absorb and dampen residual engine vibration more effectively.
More Two-Strokes on the Way
Ford in Europe and the USA is working with Orbital on a number of other two-stroke projects including six-cylinder engines in both naturally aspirated and supercharged forms. Ford research engineers are also performing a coordinating role in the development of the new Jaguar high-performance two-stroke engine recently announced.
Chief Engineer of Powertrain Systems Engineering for Ford in Europe, Jack Paskus, said, "Now that we have proved the advantages of Orbital concepts in our own research engines, we are moving forward towards the pre-program development phase as quickly as we can. We expect to learn a lot from the customer fleet trials and are optimistic that two-stroke engines will bring considerable operating benefits to Ford customers in the future."
-0- 6/24/92
/CONTACT: Peter Simons of Orbital Engine Company USA, 517-423-6623/
(F) CO: Ford Motor Company; Orbital Engine Company ST: Michigan IN: AUT SU:

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Zelandeth
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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by Zelandeth »

That is really interesting, they'd obviously put a lot of time and effort into that engine...shame it never saw proper production.

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by ekjdm14 »

Zelandeth wrote:That is really interesting, they'd obviously put a lot of time and effort into that engine...shame it never saw proper production.


Can't really add much to that, except to wonder if it may see further development with further advances in electronics & 2t technology. I actually pondered at one point if its possible to create a 2t cycle engine without total loss lubrication, something along the principles of Detroit diesels where they use poppet valves and a supercharger to create the scavenging effect. With direct injection & a low blow centrifugal (maybe even electric powered) supercharger.

Surely someone must be looking into it, as double the power strokes for a given speed has to have worthwhile gains left to be had?

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by CitroJim »

Richard, thanks for that! An incredibly interesting article on the Ford 2-stroke KA engine :) What a shame it never saw the light of day :(

Dan, 2-strokes have massive advantages but like Wankels, emissions are always the problem with them... Especially these days...

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by CitroJim »

Speaking of 2-stroke emissions, the Napier Deltic as used in the Class 55 Diesel railway locomotive was a 2-stroke diesel and it used to smoke almost as much as the steam locomotives it replaced :lol:

A very characterful engine though!

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by demag »

Wow never heard of that before. What a very neat installation as well.

Sent from my Wileyfox Swift using Tapatalk

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by Zelandeth »

Bit of progress today.

[] Sorted out the battery feed wiring so it now reached properly. It's just got screw terminals for now - because my soldering iron is currently in hiding somewhere - but will be soldered and heatshrinked once I find it. Used a couple of bits of ex Lada wiring loom, so they are pink and brown leads which match the existing palette. Not that you'll see them once they're all loomed up anyway.

[] Attempted to do some sound and vibration damping around the fuel pump to cut down the horrendous racket it makes. It has definitely helped, but it's still noisy. The line is still rigidly fixed to the body in a few places though, so once rubber sleeves have been added there will see if that helps. May also throw some sound deadening in the void in the rear wing where the pump is as it may well be acting as a big resonance chamber.

May just end up getting a new, quieter pump at the end of the day... I'm using this one purely because it was one I happened to have laying around - and it's got 112K miles of wear on.

[] Poked the non-working check engine light. If I'm interpreting the diagrams right, it should provide a ground path for the light (much the same as the oil pressure light in most cars). Basically, it isn't. Not a wiring fault either, as I've probed the pin on the ECU connector - will double check from the pin on the board just in case it's a faulty connector too. My guess though is that the transistor associated with that function though has either died or been killed. It's not a hugely complex board (only double sided) so should be pretty easy to trace out the signal path - and cross my fingers that I find a transistor rather than it vanishing into one of several proprietary Delphi branded ICs.

Will see whether I can track down a second ECU - both to test my theory, and because let's face it, having a spare isn't a bad idea anyway. ... especially when I inevitably start fiddling with the firmware!

Not with a view to fiddle with it, but one of my next tasks will be to make up an interface cable to connect to the ALDL bus (just pre dates ODB2 sadly!), as someone has written software which allows quite extensive monitoring (and I believe logging) of real-time data, which to me just seems like a really useful feature to make use of.

Likewise the CEL, it not working isn't really an issue until next MOT, but given this thing does so much in the way of self diagnosis, it seems stupid not to take advantage of that ability - especially when that can save you from damaging the cat or even the engine.

The CEL itself is currently wedged in the ashtray. Having said that, the wiring loom is cable tied to the dash and passenger seat base just now, and the fuel pump supply is just running under the front seat and over the rear one. ...suffice to say "tidy up the in-car wiring" is high on the list just now!

One other thing I've not 100% decided on is whether to stick the intake horn and warm air intake back on. It's essentially unnecessary given there's no carb to ice up (bearing in mind there are several hundred watts of heater built into the inlet as well). It will be carried and definitely added for shows. Day to day though I'm not sure if the larger inlet diameter is actually more useful...really should test if it makes any odds.

Plus it currently produces some highly entertaining noises - the sort of hard edged bark on a blip of the throttle that you normally would associate with something running a rather tasty big Webber or similar carb...the novelty might wear off eventually...maybe!

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by CitroJim »

Getting the diagnostics working will be a great boon to you in fin-tuning the system Zel - and you'll be able to properly monitor the oxygen sensor too...

The Injection DSs were prone to noisy fuel pumps so you're in good company! Hope you can silence yours as the noise will soon get very annoying... Unless you install a very loud stereo to mask it!

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by RichardW »

CEL not part of MOT - even if it is lit, it might just warrant an advisory as long as it passes the emissions test.

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by CitroJim »

RichardW wrote:CEL not part of MOT - even if it is lit, it might just warrant an advisory as long as it passes the emissions test.


That's good to know, I was always under the impression it was an instant fail and the reason it was lit (or did not light at ignition on) was immaterial...

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by Zelandeth »

RichardW wrote:CEL not part of MOT - even if it is lit, it might just warrant an advisory as long as it passes the emissions test.


They changed that then? It always used to be like the ABS light in that the tester's had a table showing what the correct behaviour at startup was. It failing to do that (usually because the bulb had been removed!) would warrant a fail.

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Re: Zel's Fleet Blog - Pug 107, Saab 900, Lada Riva, Skoda Estelle & Sinclair C5

Post by Zelandeth »

Nothing major here, just a couple of photos to show where we are just now.

Here's the box of "leftovers" that have been taken off the car.
IMG_20170518_153926.jpg
This is the current state of play in the engine bay.

Note that the bundle of red wires by the bulkhead are the "adaptor" to connect the Lambda sensor, and will be banished once the correct sensor is fitted which will instead plug in neatly. Likewise the screw terminal blocks will all disappear in the near future. The ones in the power supply line from the battery are simply because I didn't have my soldering iron handy to solder and heatshrink those connections, and the ones near the fuse box are being a placeholder for the vehicle speed sensor.

Speaking of temporary things - the cable tie connecting to the top radiator hose is also temporary - that's bracing the "bracket" currently terminating the throttle cable...

Yes, still a few things to do, but it's starting to look like an engine bay again!
IMG_20170518_121454_1.jpg
IMG_20170518_121511.jpg
In the boot it's not hard to see where the fuel pump lives...The rubber line is the suction feed from the original tank pickup, and the copper line is the HP feed that runs down under the car to the engine bay. Currently these are just going through the access panel in the boot floor, but I'll drill holes through into that void from under the car in due course (there are already a couple as that's where the fuel tank vapour separator and vent hardware lives). That way I won't be left with anything visible inside the car, but the pump will still be both easily accessible to servicing, but still inside the car so protected from the elements.
IMG_20170518_154445.jpg
Finally for now, we have the interior...where I'm currently rocking the "rally car exposed wiring look" until I get around to tidying it up.
IMG_20170516_175511.jpg
I can actually sort this lot out now that I know it works! Made sense to make sure it worked *before* faffing around routing things under the carpets and such. Need to get the nearside carpet out anyway as I need to remove the existing ECU for the old carb system...it's just taking up weight now! I *will* keep hold of it though in case for any reason I do reverse this mod at any time (can't see that happening given the *massive* improve in driveability!), as the AFR modules are pretty hard to get hold of these days - especially given their tendency to fail if you so much as look at them wrong.